India after 1990

Indian history
We starting from the early 20th century, when the vast Indian subcontinent is dominated by the (English) British Empire for nearly 150 years. The region is divided into provinces directlyadministered by the British Empire, and hundreds of princely states indirectly under the Britishcrown, including Jammu and Kashmir to the north. The colony of India enriches the British Empire, including by providing coffee, tea, and cotton, and various tax receipts France and Portugal still control some small areas although these are highly dependent on the British colony While in the 19th century anti-British revoltsare quelled, from the early 20th century nationalist movements regain momentum During the 1st World War, about 1.5 million Indians are drafted in to fight on European fronts and across the British Empire Despite their loyalty and sacrifice, Indians do not see their overall conditions improving after the end of the war, thus intensifying protests against colonial power Following increasingly violent and deadly repression by Britain.

Gandhi ji
Mahatma Gandhi becomes a figure of resistance by promoting non-violence and civil disobedience, including the boycotting of British products And the Indian National Congress party spearheads the revolt calling for the creation of an independent secular India But the Muslim minority of India did not wanted a country dominated by Hindus people, Their political representatives, and the Muslim League, calls for the creation of a independent Muslim state, In Europe, the Second World War breaks out, The British Empire focuses all their available resources in the war against Nazi Germany, In total over 2.5 million Indians would fighting different fronts around the world

When the Congress Party called on people not to participate in WWII efforts and demands the departure of the British, party leaders and tens of thousands of civilians are imprisoned, The Muslim League, meanwhile, cooperates with Britain to remain in their good books Britain finds itself struggling against Japan which was allied with Germany, when it take over Burma then This cuts an important supply of rice in the region, which was a major factor in the Bengal famine of 1943 causing 2 to 4 million people's deaths, To calm things down, Britain promised to discuss independence of India after the end of WWII. In 1947, Britain meets the Congress Party and the Muslim League to negotiate the country's independence, then the gap between Hindus and Muslims widens to the point that Britain, fearing a civil war supports the idea of carvingout two states.

Pakistani government
On thus, August 14, in 1947 the Muslim country Pakistan was born divided into a western and an eastern part And on and August 15, in 1947, the Indian Unionis born, a secular country with a large Hindus majority Initially, some princely states refused to join either of the new countries while violence between Hindus and Muslims people erupts along the new borders, This results in the displacement of millions of people from one country to the other based on their religion In the south, Britain was still retain, Ceylon for a few months despite fighting between Hindus and Buddhists people The Hindu maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, which has a majority Muslim population, doesn’t initially join either India or Pakistan. When Pakistani troops infiltrate the borderin an attempt to seize that state, then the Maharaja asked India for military assistance in exchange for integration into the country This was the beginning of the first India vs Pakistan war, After the two years of fighting, the United Nations negotiates a ceasefire and draws a temporary border This border wasn't completed due to the Siachen glacier  of north-east, uninhabited and almost inaccessible.

It was  claimed by both countries. India become a federal parliamentary republic, and 171 million citizens are eligible to vote in the first elections in the country. As the world was divided into two camps by the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, India opts for neutrality by becoming a non-aligned This brings it diplomatically closer to African and Asian countries But a visit by the India's prime minister to the USSR marks a rapprochement between the two countries, which did not please its Chinese neighbor After China takes over Tibet and the Dalai Lama flees to India, tensions rise between the two countries, Moreover, China refused to recognize the 1914 McMahon line drawn by Britain in the east of India, and claims a Kashmir's territory. In 1962, China attacks India and quickly capturesthe two territories China then declared a unilateral ceasefire, retained control of Aksai Chin and withdrawal from Arunachal Pradesh although not recognized the border.

Chinese government
After that, the China fosters closer diplomaticties with the Pakistan and Pakistan tried to capitalizoe on India’s defeat to China, Pakistani soldiers disguised as civilians infiltrated Kashmir's part controlled by India, and pushed the local Muslim population to revolt When Indian forces counter the infiltration, it sparked the second India vs Pakistani war, Both the countries tried and invade the other’s territory But seeing the Indian army come dangerously close to Lahore, then China threatens to intervene on behalf of  Pakistan, The United Nations stepped in and obtains a ceasefire, followed by a return to pre-war boundaries and In 1970, a separatist party in East Pakistan gained a landslide election victory In response, the Pakistani army take overand violently suppresses independence movements.

Millions of civilians, mainly from the country’s Hindu minority went and seek refuge in India and the India signed a treaty of military cooperation with the Soviet Union and in responsed to Pakistani air strikes in north India intervenes to expel its troops from East Pakistan, The United States then intervenes on behalf of Pakistan to negotiated a ceasefire, Bangladesh was recognized as a new independent state, while Pakistan funded itself weakened. After three years, India surprised the world by conducting its first nuclear tests, sparking international concern India increasingly faced separatist actions from Assamese, Sikh and Kashmiri groups demanding independence.

Sikhism
Sikhs wert practitioner of Sikhism it's a monotheistic religion dating from the 15th century The majority of Sikhs live in Punjab where a radical rebel group takes up arms to demand independence of the region and The group occupies the Golden Temple, the religion’s most sacred shrine, After the failure of negotiations, the India's army storms the temple and neutralised the occupant. In retaliation, India's prime minister Indhira Gandhi was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards This is followed by region-wide riots between Sikhs and Hindus Finally, moderate Sikhs came into power in Punjab would calm the situation. In Sri Lanka, civil war takes place between an armed separatist group from the Tamil minority who were Hindu, and the Sinhalese government who were majority Buddhist India, with its sizeable Tamil community, supported its brethren in the war and parachutes supplied to besieged cities. Eventually, India and the Sri Lanka negotiated a ceasefire, according to which the latter must accepted some Tamil claims in exchanged for India sending a Peace keeping Force to help end the civil war. Although a large-scale military operation were not originally envisaged, the Indian army engaged in a series of battles against the Tamil separatists.

To the point that the Sri Lankan government finally demanded the departure of the India's army from the country, In 1992, right-wing Hindus destroyed the Babri Masjid mosque which was made by Muslim king Babur dating from the 16th century which they believe is built on a sacred site for the Hindu religion This anger Muslims were revived religious tensions in the country Deadly attacks erupted, and for the first time, the city of Mumbai is affected by terrorist bombings India accused Pakistan of supporting the attack, which it denied Both countries conducted nuclear tests, drawing wide international condemnation and sanctioned. In Kashmir, Pakistani fighters infiltrated to the India's side, The India's army counters and quickly regains control of the area. After the September 11 attacks, the United States and India move closer to cooperate in the fight against Islamist terrorism emanating from Pakistan China meanwhile strengthened its relationship with the Pakistan. Several Indian cities suffer terror attacks the most audacious of which is the Mumbai attacks of November 2008, Despite some attempted at finding a breakt hrough, India vs Pakistani ties remain tense, mainly over the contested Kashmir's region.

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