Complete history of Delhi sultanate and architecture

Delhi sultanate


Delhi Sultanate History


Ancient India to till date Delhi always been a India's political center, History of Delhi has been very euphoric throughout the History If we talk about mythologically so Delhi has been the capital of Pandavas of Mahabharata at that time it used to known as indraprastha, Iranian, Persian, Afgani, Mongols, Rajput, Marathas, always wanted to ruled Delhi so that's why sometimes rulers built some places like Qutub minar so sometimes they looted and sometimes the ruler's war took place to Conquer delhi.

Delhi Sultanate or Sultanate-e-Hind or Sultanate-e-Delhi is called the reign of five descendants governing India from 1210 to 1526. And 5 dynasty ruled Delhi, 4 of them were originally Turks while the last was Afgan, these five dynasty was

Slave Dynasty (1206 - 1290)

Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320)

Tughalak Dynasty (1320 - 1423)

Syed Dynasty (1424 - 1452) 

Lodi Dynasty (1452 - 1526)

This empire was spread over 3.2 million square kilometers

The Delhi Sultanate was founded in 1206 AD. The establishment of the Delhi Sultanate was the result of the propaganda activities that encouraged the religious and political changes in Arabia and Central Asia as a result of the establishment of Islam.

Read-  How Islam came to india

Before the Mughal Empire came into existence, the Delhi Sultanate was considered the most powerful state in northern India. The Islamic world was horrified when the Mongol invasion began. Due to his terror, the Islamic royalty's feet were uprooted from the place of birth of Islam. In this situation, the Delhi Sultanate became a refuge for saints, scholars, litterateurs and rulers who believd in Islam

Muhammad Ghauri's slave Qutb-ud-din Aibak was the first Sultan of this dynasty. The kingdom of Aibak extended to the whole of North India After this, the Khilji dynasty took over Central India but failed to organize the Indian subcontinent.

This sultanate not only destroyed and desecrated many temples in South Asia, but also played an important role in the rise of Indo-Islamic architecture. The Delhi Sultanate is one of the few periods in Muslim history where a woman took power. This empire came to an end in 1526 by the Mughal Sultanate.


Delhi sultanate history


Delhi Sultanate History

In 962 AD the Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms of South Asia came to be massively attacked by the Muslim army which came from Persia and Central Asia and one of them was mahmud ghaznavi who looted the kingdoms east of the Indus River and west of the Yamuna River from 997 AD to 1030 AD Mahmud ghaznavi did a lot of plunder but he could extend his empire only to West Punjab

Even after mahmud ghaznavi muslim chieftains continued to plunder west and north India but they could not establish permanent Islamic rule in India because they did not wanted to do that and this Sultan muhammad ghori of the Gore Dynasty began a systematic attack on North India he began to increase Islamic rule under his objective ghori was a sunni Muslim who extended his empire to the eastern Indus River and founded the Sultanate period In some historical texts the Sultanate period is dated to 1192–1526 (334 years)

In 1206 Ghori was assassinated by hindu at the instigation of Shia Muslims after the assassination of Ghori one of his Ottoman slaves Qutb-ud-din Aibak took power and became the first Sultan of Delhi In this way the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate was laid

The establishment of the Delhi Sultanate is a landmark event in Indian history this new form of governance was different from the earlier regimes of India the rulers of that period and their administrative system were based on a religion that was different from India's majority religion at that time it was difficult for the general public to accept it there is no example in Indian history of unprecedented centralization of power by the rulers and exploitation of the peasantry the period of Delhi Sultanate started from 1206 AD to 1562 AD The rule of Muslims prevailed in India during this long period of 320 years


Delhi sultanate rulers


Delhi Sultanate Rulers


Slave Dynasty

Qutbuddin Aibak - He was the ruler of medieval India as well as the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate and the first Sultanate of the Ghulam dynasty he was Turkish from the Aibak community and was a Sultan for only four years between 1206 and 1210

Aram Shah - He was the second Ruler of this dynasty and he ruled only for 1 year from 1210 to 1211


Shamsi Dynasty

1 Iltutmish which mean is the protector of the empire Iltutmish belonged to the Ilbari tribe of Turkistan from the beginning he showed signs of intelligence and cleverness he ruled 1211 to 1236 AD only for 15 years

Rukn-ud-din Firuz He was the half brother of Firoz Shah Razia and he was declared as a Sultan in April or May in 1236 AD on the second day of Iltutmish's death before becoming Sultan he used to managed the government of Badaun and Lahore He ruled only for one year in 1236

Razia Sultan She was the Sultan of Delhi between 1236 and 1240 and also she was the first female Muslim ruler in indian history her rule has great importance in Indian history not because she was a woman but because she was not belong to from any big family and her father Iltutmish worked as a servant at Qutubuddin Aibak in Delhi later he was given the post of Provincial Governor

Muiz ud din Bahramshah He was a muslim turkish ruler and the Sultan of Delhi Bahramshah was of Ghulam dynasty After overthrowing the Razia Sultan the Turkish chieftains installed Muizuddin Bahram Shah on the throne of Delhi 1240–1242 AD and he was the son of Iltutmish and brother of Razia Sultan

Alauddin Masood Shah He was the great grandson of Iltutmish when Bahramshah wanted to take the powers of the Sultan into his own hands so Chahalgani removed him and made Alauddin Masoodshah, son of Ruknuddin the ruler. During this period Balban was in the rank of Amir-e-Hajib. He ruled 1246 to 1266


Balban Dynasty

Ghiyas ud din balban His original name was Bahudin he was a ruler of the Ghulam dynasty in the Delhi. He ruled from 1266 to 1286. Ghiyasuddin Balban was an Ilbari Turk by tribe

Kaikubad and Shamsuddin He ruled 1287 to 1290


Khalji Dynasty

1 jalaluddin firuz khalji  He was the founder of the Khalji dynasty he sat on the throne of Delhi on 13 June 1290 AD ans he obtained the throne of delhi by killing Shamsuddin Qumars who was the last ruler of the Ghulam dynasty

Alauddin Khilji He was the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty and he was very powerful and ambitious king alauddin killed his uncle Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji and took his throne from his name and he continued to spread his empire in India by carrying forward the legacy of the Khilji dynasty he liked to call himself another Alexander he was given the title of Sikander-i-Sunny Khilji had stopped the open sale of liquor in his state He ruled 1296 to 1316 only for 20 years

Shibab-ud-din Omar Khilji He ruled only for one year in 1316

Qutbuddin Mubarak Khalji was the third son of sultan alauddin Khilji the Sultan of the Khilji dynasty Malik Kafur one of the influential persons of Alauddin was its patron He ruled only for 4 years from 1316 to 1320

Nasiruddin khusrau shah he was born as hindu but later he converted to islam and became a Muslim and ruled April 15 to April 27 in 1320 only for 12 days


Tughlaq Dynasty

Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq He was the first ruler to establish the Tughlaq dynasty in the Delhi his former name was Ghazi Malik who after sitting on the throne of the Delhi Sultanate took his new name Gaiasuddin and he ruled from 1320 to 1325 only for 5 years

Muhammad bin Tughluq He was the son and successor of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq who laid the foundation of the Tughlaq dynasty of Delhi and he ruled from 1325 to 1351 AD The ruler of this complex personality is known in history for cynical schemes and cruel acts At the same time he is also said to be a scholar and a great commander and an original planner

Firoz Shah Tughlaq He was ascended the throne of Delhi Sultanate at the age of 45 his father name was Rajzab who was the younger brother of Giasuddin Tughlaq while his mother was the princess of Deepalpur he ruled from 1351 to 1388 only for 31 years

Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq second He ruled 1388 to 1389 just for 1 year

Abu bakr shah He ruled 1389 to 1390 for 1 year

Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq He ruled 1390 to 1394 only for 4 years

Nusrat Shah Tughluq He ruled 1395 to 1398 only for 3 years

Mahmud tughlaq He ruled 1399 to 1412 and he was the last Ruler of that dynasty who ruled only for 13 years


Sayyid Dynasty

Khizr Khan was the founder of the Sayyid dynasty and the first Ruler of that dynasty Khizr Khan took over the throne of Delhi in 1414 to 1421 just for 7 years

Mubarak Shah He was the son of Khizr Khan of the Sayyid dynasty Khizr Khan appointed him as his successor Mubarak Shah assumed the title of 'Shah' and issued coins in his name He ruled 1421 to 1434 just for 13 years

Mahmud shah He ruled from 1424 to 1445 for 19 yrsrs

Alauddin Alam Shah He was the son of Muhammad Shah of the Sayyid dynasty After the death of Muhammad Shah Alauddin assumed the title of 'Alamshah' and ascended the throne in the name of Alauddin Alamshah he ruled 1445 to 1450 only for 5 yeras


Lodi dynasty

Bahlol Lodi established the first Afghan dynasty under the Delhi Sultanate the Lodi rulers were of the Afghan tribe also known as the Pathans he ruled only for 38 years 1451 to 1489

Sikandar Lodhi was the second Sultan of Delhi Sultanate his original name was 'Nizam Khan' and it sat on the throne of Delhi on 17 July 1489 with the title of Sultan Sikandar Shah he ruled 1489 to 1517 only for 28 years

Ibrahim Lodi After the death of Sikander Lodi his eldest son Ibrahim Lodi ascended the throne from 1517 to 1526 only for 9 years and he was the last sultan of delhi 

Decline of Delhi sultanate

Decline of Delhi sultanate

Ending the permanent army - Feroz Shah Tughlaq ended the permanent army and formed the feudal army Land grants were given in rural areas after the salaries of the soldiers were abolished the lands of the rich were hereditary in the same way the lands of the soldiers were also hereditary the soldier began to work cleanly they could not be evicted from the land so they did not fear anyone due to regular and fixed landmines the soldier started to love lazy luxury  most of his time was spent in tax collecting there was no time left for state security that this why foreigners took advantage of loose troops

Tughluq Ruler - The Delhi Sultanate was fond of slaves assuming slaves as their power they set up a separate department of their training the treasury was subjected to heavy economic pressure by providing adequate salaries and facilities to slaves later on the slaves organized and revolted against the Tughlaq empire

The imposition of Jiziya and other taxes - Sultan Muhammad Tughluq imposed a religious tax on Brahmins and non-Muslims which make Hindus and non-Muslims against the Sultan

Resilience in justice system - Instead of Sultan Tughlaq justice based on Sharia he closed all inhuman punishments against Sharia he ended the death sentence for Muslims death penalty started to be given to the rebels only due to the flexibility of justice subjects started getting freedom and arbitrariness

Economic crisis- Sultan gave peace and convenience to the subjects peacefully instead of war and victory, built canals, ponds, wells for the development of agriculture Farmers were already knew that how much tax they would have to pay No strictness was taken in land revenue recovery 1/10 of the revenue yield was determined in consultation with the Ulama

Promotion of trade- Sultan encouraged trade business and fixed market the market was controlled no traders could unnecessarily exploit the public the security of the traders was arranged the traders used to go to the remote areas and do certain business for the convenience of trade circulation of low-value currency and circulation of coins

Diwan-e-Khairat - Provided financial assistance to the people in times of loss and economic crisis established the Dewan-e-Khairat Department which provided financial assistance to Muslim widows and orphans a poor Muslim provided financial support for the marriage of girls the hospital was arranged for the patients.

Architecture - Many madrasas and mausoleums were established by the Sultan and Architectural lovers appointed scholar teachers there to get the mosque a Jama Hauz a Alhi repaired Get necessary reforms done in Qutub Minar.

Education - Respecting scholars for promoting education during their rule, Barani wrote two important texts 
(1) Fatwa e Jahandari 
(2) Tarikh e Firozshahi get Urdu and other literature translated into Persian

Delhi sultanate architecture

Delhi Sultanate Architecture


Qutub Minar

Built by- Qutubuddin aibak

Qutub Minar is the tallest tower in the world, built of brick in Mehrauli, Delhi city of India. Delhi is called the heart of India many ancient buildings and heritage are located here the


Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra

Built by- Qutubuddin aibak

The Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra is a mosque built by Qutub-ud-din-Aibak and he was the first Sultan of Delhi in 1199 AD


Quwwatul Islam Mosque

Built by- Qutubuddin aibak

This mosque in Delhi is said to be a unique piece of Islamic art its construction was started by Qutb-ud-din Aibak in the year of 1192 but it was not completed However it was later completed by Iltutmish in 1230 and 1315 by Alauddin Khilji


Alai Darwaza

Built by- Sultan Alauddin Khilji

The Alai Darwaza is present in the southern part of the Qualt-ul-Islam Mosque in the Qutub Minar complex. The Alai Darwaza is built using red sandstone and white marble


Jamatkhana mosque

Built by- Khizar khan


Iron pillar

Built by- Chandragupta II

This pillar is seven meters high situated in the premises of Qutub Minar Delhi It weighs about six tons


Sultan Gori Tomb

Built by- Iltutmish


Tughluqbad fort

Built by- Ghiyasuddin tughlaq

Tughlaqabad Fort is a ruins fort of Delhi, built in 1321 by Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq, the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty of Delhi Sultanate of India.

Delhi sultanate IAS

Delhi Sultanate UPSC

Delhi Sultanate is a very important topic there is not a single government exam where the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire is not asked so here are some important question and answers which will be helpful for you if you're preparing for government job such as UPSC or IAS

• Qutb al-Din Aibak was the first ruler of the Mamluk dynasty (Delhi Sultanate) (also known as Das dynasty) He was a liberal ruler and ruled Delhi for four years Qutub-ud-din Aibak laid the foundation of the famous Qutub Minar of Delhi

• Qutub Minar was built by Qutubuddin Aibak in memory of Sufi saint 'Sheikh Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki' He built a mosque called Dhai din ka jhopra in Ajmer. Qutbuddin Aibak died of falling from a horse while playing Chogam.

• Another important ruler of this dynasty was Shams-ud-din Iltutmish he was the son-in-law of Qutb-ud-din Aibak. Shams-ud-din Iltumish was known for the ace system of land revenue and the completion of the Qutub Minar

• Shams-us-Din Iltumish was followed by his daughter Razia Sultan (Raziyat-ud-Din Sultan) who took over the Delhi Sultanate. The last ruler of this dynasty was Kayakabad who was assassinated by Jalal-ud-din Feroz Khilji alias Malik Feroz and abolished the Mamluk dynasty or Das dynasty

• Jalal-ud-din Feroz founded the Khilji dynasty it was assassinated by his nephew Ala-ud-din Khilji. Alauddin Khilji, encouraged by his success, assumed the title of 'Alexander-e-Sani' or Alexander II, Jaziya tax (from non-Muslim), Zakat tax (40% of the religious tax wealth) and housing and grazing tax were also taken by Alauddin Khilji

• After the death of Alauddin Khilji, Feroze's son Mubarak Shah was succeeded by him. But he too was assassinated by Khusru Khan and Khusru sat on the throne of the Delhi Sultanate for some time, Later on he was killed by Ghiyath-al-Din Tughlaq and the Tughlaq dynasty came to power

• The first ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty was Giyath-al-Din Tughlaq also known as Ghazi Malik. His mother was a Hindu It was the first Sultan who built canals and cities during his reign he established cities like Ferozeshah Kotla (Delhi), Hisar, Jaunpur (West Bengal), Fatehabad, Firozabad

• After the Tughlaq dynasty, Khizr Khan established the Sayyid dynasty. After the death of Khizr Khan his son Mubarak Khan ascended the throne and assumed the title Shah. The famous writer in Mubarak Shah's court was Sirhindi who wrote 'Tithi-e-Mubarak Shahi' Al-ud-din Alam Shah was the last ruler of the Sayyid dynasty. He voluntarily relinquished the throne in favor of Bahlol Lodi

• Bahlol Lodi was the first Afghan ruler to sit on the throne of Delhi. He assumed the title 'Bahlol Shah Ghazi' Bahlol Lodi's son Nizam Khan ascended the throne with the title 'Sultan Sikander Shah Lodi' Sikandar Lodhi founded the city of Agra in 1504 AD and made it his capital. At his command, the Sanskrit treatise 'Ayurveda' was translated into Persian under the name 'Farahange - Sikandari'.

• After the death of Sikandar Lodi from throat cancer his son Ibrahim Lodi ascended the throne Daulat Khan Lodi one of Ibrahim Lodi's uncles fled to Kabul and invited Babur to attack India Taking the advice of Daulat Khan Lodi Babur attacked northern India On 21 April 1526 the first battle of Panipath took place between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi in which Ibrahim Lodi was badly defeated

• Ibrahim Lodi was killed in the same war and the Sultanate period of Delhi came to an end. The ruler of the Afghan Lodi dynasty was the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate After this Babur established the Mughal Empire in Delhi. Delhi Sultanate is a very important topic There is not a single government exam where the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire is not asked


Important question Answer related to Delhi sultanate



Which was the Sultan of Delhi Who died while playing 'Chaugan' (Polo)?

• Qutubuddin aibak


What was the court language of Delhi Sultanate?

• Persian


Who was the last ruler of the Lodi dynasty?
• Ibrahim lodi


Who is the author of the autobiography 'Shahnama'?

• Firdausi


The Delhi Sultanate was ruled by the total?

• By five dynasties


In whose reign was Alberuni a historian?

• Mahmud ghaznavi


When was the first war of Tarain?

• in 1191


The coins of which Muslim ruler have the figure of Goddess Lakshmi?

• Muhammad Gauri


Which Sultan of Delhi imposed Jiziya on Brahmins also?

• Feroz shah tughlaq


What was the name of the first Muslim invader who came to India in 712 AD?

• Muhammad bin qasim


Balban was the Prime Minister of which Sultan before assuming the office of Sultan of Delhi?

• Nasiruddin Mahmud


The Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque was built by whom?

• Qutubuddin aibak


Who started the leather emblem in India?

• Muhammad bin tughlaq


Where was Amir Khusro born?

• Patiali

Who was the Indian ruler known as 'Lakhbakhsh'

• Qutubuddin aibak


Who was the first female ruler to rule Delhi?

• Razia Sultan


What was the real name of Genghis Khan?

• Temujin


Who was the Sultan to call himself the second Alexander (Alexander-e-Sani)?

• Alauddin Khilji


Under whose reign were the most Mongol invasions?

• Alauddin Khilji


To whom did Alauddin Khilji entrust the mission of conquering the south?

• Malik Khafur


Which Rajput king defeated Muhammad Gauri for the first time?

• Bheem II


The city of Agra was founded by?

• Sikandar Lodi


Who is called the 'Prince of Maniyars'?

• Muhammad bin tughlaq


Who was the founder of the Ghulam dynasty in India?

• Qutubuddin aibak


Who established a separate department called Diwan-e-Khairat?

• Feroz shah Tughluq


How many times did Mahmud Ghaznavi invade India?

• 17 times


In whose reign did the traveler Ibn Batuta come to India?

Muhammad bin tughlaq


Who completed the construction work of Qutub Minar?

• Iltutmish


Who became the Sultan of Delhi after Qutubuddin Aibak in 1210?

• Iltutmish


Whose daughter was Razia Sultan?

• Iltutmish

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