Kashmir issue | History of Kashmir

History of Kashmir
Kashmir is a very old problem of India At the time of independence, when the partition of India took place in two countries, the question arose as to which country Kashmir would go with According to Muslim League leader 'Jinnah' it should have gone to Pakistan, because at that time about 77 percent of the population of Kashmir was Muslim and Jinnah's demand for Pakistan was by citing Muslim religion but this argument was wrong for Kashmir  On the other hand, the king here, Raja Hari Singh, did not want to include Kashmir in India or Pakistan. However, political conditions have changed so much in the course of time that Kashmir felt safe in its involvement with India Meanwhile, there were many agreements, etc. between both India and Pakistan The same agreements, histories etc have been discussed here.

According to the documents received at the time, we get information from the information that this area came under the Mauryan rule After this, the people of Kushan caste were ruled here, People of Kushan caste used to believe in Buddhism Due to this, Buddhism spread very well in this place and this place became the center of the study of Buddhism. Kanishka, the great king of the Kushan dynasty, also organized the fourth Buddhist council After them, different types of Hindu kings ruled from time to time, A dynasty of these Hindu kings, whose name was Kartoka, established the Sun Temple Martand located here, After this, Islam came into Kashmir around the 13th century, When Islam came to Kashmir, the religion of many people here was converted to Islam.  Finally, the king here also had to convert to Islam, At this time, the Kashmir Sultanate started.

Later, around 1586, the Mughals took Kashmir under their control This was the time of Akbar's rule.  After this, the Afghans started attacking in Kashmir around 1751 At this time, Afghan ruler Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated the weak Mughals of this time and established his kingdom here After this, in the year 1819, the then Sikh King Maharaja Ranjit Singh defeated the Afghans and annexed Kashmir into his kingdom When Maharaja Ranjit Singh died in the year 1846 at this time the British defeated the Sikhs in the Sikh-Anglo war and left the people of Dogra dynasty to rule here, Raja Maharaja Gulab Singh of Dogra dynasty gave 75 lakh rupees to become king in this state After this, this dynasty ruled here for 100 years.

• King of Kashmir Hari Singh
   During the year 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh wanted that after partition, Kashmir should neither join India nor Pakistan, Hari Singh wanted to make Kashmir the Switzerland of Asia, At this time here, the founder of the National Conference Party, Sheikh Abdullah and his people were working to bring democracy in Kashmir, They wanted that no king should rule in Kashmir, democracy should be established or it should be that the king but the king has very limited powers.  This party also had full support of the then Indian National Congress At this time the whole country needed a new system and that is why the Congress was supporting Sheikh Abdullah to bring democracy in the country.

 At the same time Jinnah wanted that India should be divided into two parts in the name of Hindu and Muslim, He believed that two countries should be formed, in which there should be one Hindu majority and one Muslim majority country, In this way Jinnah said that Kashmir with 77% of the Muslim population at that time should join Pakistan, but Maharaja Hari Singh did not let this happen and he signed an agreement, that the business of both countries from Pakistan etc, Will continue, but Kashmir will not be included in any country.

• Kashmir revolts and issue
  Before agreement could be reached with India, a major revolt took place in the Tail region of Kashmir, The reason for this rebellion was that some Indian soldiers were already living in this area, who revolted against the soldiers of Maharaja Hari Singh.  The soldiers of Maharaja Hari Singh opened fire on them, due to which some people also died Because of this, this rebellion became even greater After this there was a huge rebellion, the riot of Jammu, At the time of Partition, riots were happening everywhere in the country, A similar riot took place in Jammu, In this riot, the Muslims here were killed and driven away The Muslims here started going to Pakistan to save themselves

Citing the above two incidents, Pakistan sent Pashtun fighters to its front, These soldiers attacked the valley of Kashmir on 22 October On this, Maharaja Hari Singh asked for military help from India On this, India proposed to Maharaja Harisingh to join India The Maharaja acceded to India to avoid the invasion and signed the Instrument of Accession of India on 26 October 1947 Pakistan objected to this and said that this treaty is against the will of the people of Kashmir, Sheikh Abdullah also accepted this accession.

Pakistan's attitude on this accession was not correct On this, he said that this instrument has been signed by keeping Hari Singh under pressure, and there is no opinion of the people of Kashmir anywhere in this, but this treaty was completely legal and it was implemented Within the instrument, it was a matter that when the circumstances are right, the opinion of the people will be known, The future of Kashmir will be decided further At this time, Sheikh Abdullah was appointed by the Maharaja to the post of Emergency of Administration so that he could take up the position After this, the Maharaja left Srinagar and broke away from the rule, After the 1948 war, Sheikh Abdullah was made the 'Prime Minister' of Kashmir (at that time the person sitting on the post of Chief Minister in Kashmir was called Prime Minister)

• The First Kashmir War 1947-48
   After the instrument was signed, India sent its army to fight Pakistan, and with this the battle of the first Kashmir of India Pakistan started This battle was fought at high altitude, where the Indian Army was sent by helicopter In this fight, the Pakistani Army had to face the face and the Indian Army was successful in chasing them In this battle, the Indian Army captured the valley of Kashmir.

• Azad Kashmir Issue
   At the time when this fight was going on, a puppet government was formed in the western region of Kashmir with the help of Pakistan in the areas like Poonch and Baramulla etc. and the region declared itself as independent Kashmir and called itself independent Kashmir This free Kashmir still exists today, whose government is run by Pakistan The capital of this independent Kashmir is Muzaffarabad The northern areas of Kashmir in which Gilgit, Baltistan, Muzaffarabad, Mirpur etc. are present in Kashmir falling in Pakistan.

• Kashmir Issue in UN
  India went to the United Nations in January 1948 regarding this problem From that side, Pakistan also reached the United Nations on this issue In view of the Kashmir problems here, the United Nation set up a commission named 'United Nation Commission for India and Pakistan' consisting of a total of five members These five people visited India and Kashmir and tried to find a solution, However, there was no way out of this effort However, a resolution was adopted from this commission of the United Nation There were three 'Consecutive Non-Binding Steps' in this resolution, Consecutive steps mean that if the first condition is considered in all three conditions, then only the second condition will be considered, These three resolutions are as follows

• Pakistan should immediately withdraw its forces from Kashmir.
• India should at least keep the army and withdraw all the army to maintain order.
• A play-site will be implemented to know the opinion of the people.

But in the last 70 years, Pakistan did not withdraw its army from Kashmir, due to which two further conditions were not considered Pakistan says that if they remove the army, India will attack their Kashmir and subdue it, India also fears the same, In this way till today neither of the two countries have removed their military capability from here.

• Kashmir LOC
  In the year 1948, there was a fire The cease fire means that the firing between the two forces stopped for some time Defacto border formed at the time of seize fire, In the immediate time, this border is working at the international level but it is still not called international border This was named as LOC i.e. Line of Control in the year 1972.  This name was decided in the Shimla Accord, as well as it was decided that India and Pakistan will resolve the Kashmir issue by talking on their own and no external country or UN will interfere in it.

• Kashmir LAC
  Aksaichin is a part of Kashmir, here is the control of China The Aksai China border in Kashmir and China in India is called the Line of Actual Control China captured Aksai Chin in the year 1962, After the war between India and China Pakistan extended a hand of friendship towards China and in return for this friendship Pakistan gave a large part of Kashmir to China, The name of this part is Shaksgam Valley In the year 1965, Pakistan gave this as a gift to China, This was wrong in the Shimla Accord, because Pakistan had also pulled China in the Kashmir issue This could have led to problems over the Kashmir Agreement between the two countries, After India and Pakistan in this matter, now China has also joined it.

• Kashmir 370 Act
  Article 370 is an article of the Indian Constitution and not of the Constitution of Kashmir This article was drafted by Sheikh Abdullah and Gopalaswami Iyengar Kashmir has been given special exemption in the Constitution of India under this section However, in the article the word 'temporary' has been used, which suggests that the exemption given is temporary It is to be noted that in Jammu and Kashmir, the State Assembly has the maximum authority to make laws, if the Central Government of India also wants to implement its own laws there, it must first be passed in the State Assembly there is Apart from this, no person from other states of India can settle permanently in Kashmir Land cannot be bought there and houses cannot be built there.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar were completely against Article 370 He refused to draft Article 370 It is worth noting that BR Ambedkar prepared the entire constitution, but refused to draft Article 370.

On 6 August 2019, the government of Prime Minister Narendra Modi issued an order to remove sections 370 and 35A from Kashmir This was a big step of the Modi government, which was taken after independence A wave of happiness ran in the people of Jammu and Kashmir  On 31 October, the central government announced the formation of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh as 2 union territories.  After which, now 28 states and 9 Union Territories of India have become.

• Kashmir other stories
   Year 1953: Sheikh Abdullah was removed from the post of Prime Minister of Kashmir and jailed for eleven years It is believed that Nehru had him put in jail due to a rift with the central government.

Year 1964: In the year 1964, Sheikh Abdullah came out of jail and tried to talk to Nehru on Kashmir issue, but in the same year Nehru died and could not talk.

1974: Indira Sheikh Accord was held in 1974, under which Sheikh was made the Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir.  This year it was also decided that the need for placebite is no longer in Jammu and Kashmir because the reality at the ground level was better than before.

The year 1984: This year, the Indian Army captured the world's largest and highest glacier and war ground At this time, the Indian Army had received such news that Pakistan was seizing Siachen Due to this, India also started climbing and reached there before Pakistan, Siachen border is very important for India diplomatically, because if there is no Indian army here, then the Chinese territory and Pakistani territory of Kashmir will be united However, Pakistan also waged a Kargil war to capture Siachen.

Year 2019 (August) This year will be written in golden letters in the history of Kashmir.  After independence, Kashmir, which was not a part of India even though it was a part of India, was made a part of India On August 2019, Prime Minister Modi ji and planetary minister Amit Shah announced and removed Section 370 from there Only after this order was the opposition leader strongly opposed to it, but the Modi government took all opposition leaders like Mehbooba Mufti into government custody Year 2019 (October) - On 31 October, the Central Government announced to make Kashmir and Ladakh 2 separate Union Territories Now in Kashmir, work like other states will be done.

• Kashmir Militancy
  During the assembly elections in Kashmir in 1987, the National Conference and the Indian Congress made a huge mess and they won the election there When the elections were won in very large numbers, there were quite a few demonstrations against both the parties and gradually these demonstrations became aggressive and violent Taking advantage of these violent demonstrations, Pakistan included terrorist groups like Hizb ul Mujahideen and separatists of Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front among these protesters.  Because of this, this situation got worse and it was brought to the people by linking it with the independence of Kashmir.  The young Kashmiris were sent across the border and they were given terrorist training  All such terrorist activities were supported by ISI and various other organizations.

• Kashmiri Pandit Issue in Kashmir
   In the year 1990, Kashmiri Pandits had to face a lot of protest and violence The Kashmiri Pandit is a minority Hindu community in the Kashmir Valley, Even though they were minorities, they held good jobs in good positions in administration, as well as they were very well educated.  During this time many threats started against them and many big Kashmiri Pandits were shot in public, They started getting threats in broad daylight that if they did not leave the valley, they would be killed.  I did something similar About 200 to 300 Kashmiri Pandits were killed within 2 to 3 months, After this, threats started appearing in the newspapers that Kashmiri Pandits should leave Kashmir and they were threatened by the loud speaker day and night, Finally, for fear of his life, these Kashmiri Pandits, who numbered about 2.5 to 3 lakh, had to leave the valley overnight and leave for Jammu or Delhi.

One reason behind this incident was also that at this time the Central Government made Jagmohan the Governor of the Center Farooq Abudallah had said that if Jagmohan was made the governor, he would resign and upon this Farooq resigned There was complete chaos and chaos in Kashmir after this In this chaos, Kashmiri Pandits had to leave their homes, their businesses etc. and come to Jammu or Delhi These Kashmiri Pandits are living their lives in poverty in various camps till date.

• Kashmir AFSPA
 In view of such anarchy, the Government of India implemented the Armed Forces Special Power Act here It was not implemented for the first time in India.  Earlier, AFSPA was implemented in some North Eastern regions, According to this act, the army is given some extra power with the help of which they can arrest anyone without any suspicion without any warrant, they can shoot anyone without suspicion and without searching any house.  Can take warrant This act was very important to save Kashmir at this time After this, gradually the situation started to come under control, yet to establish the system and end the militancy, from 1990 to 2000, ran counter-internal Militancy ended here after 2004, Many sari incidents happened in Kashmir during this ten years.  Many terrorists were brought to India from across the LoC.  These terrorists used to carry out terrorist activities, firing and bomb blasts etc. in Jammu and Kashmir. In this way, the situation in Kashmir was very bad for fifteen years.

In 2003, a LoC ceasefire agreement was signed between India and Pakistan, under which there was talk of reducing firing and infiltration on the LoC. At this time, although the militancy has reduced and infiltration has also reduced, but it has not ended The news of violations of Golibaris and Cease Fire keeps coming in the news every day.

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