Khilji dynasty | History | Rulers | UPSC

 

Khilji dynasty

In last article we have mentioned that how Delhi sultanate came into power from 1206 to 1526 The first dynasty in this sequence was the slave dynasty and they second dynasty is Khilji Dynasty so in this article you will learn about Khilji empire so please read the complete article of Knowledgeneed

Khilji empire did not ruled for longer it only ruled for 30 years from 1290 to 1320 but in this period a well knowing and most important emperor comes into power whose name was Alauddin Khilji and he did many good and bad things alauddin Khilji is as important in Khilji dynasty as engine in a car 


Khilji dynasty rulers


Jalaluddin firuz Khilji

He was the founder of this dynasty and he was very old when he founded it in 1290 Ad at that time he was 70 years old and its said that he was the oldest ruler in history of Delhi sultanate, In old age he wanted to live peacefully that is why he got his coronation done in the fort of Kilokhari which was situated Delhi

Jalaluddin firuz Khilji had a nephew whose name was Alauddin Khilji and his father name was Shihabuddin Masud khilji alauddin was his eldest son and its said that alauddin's father was died in early age so that Alauddin was brought up by his uncle Jalaluddin firuz

In 1296 Jalaluddin Khilji sent Alauddin Khilji for the expedition to the south as the region of North India had already been expanded but the Sultanate had not started in the region of South, In such a situation Alauddin Khilji was the first person who tried to extend the boundaries of the Sultanate to Southern India

Alauddin Khilji expedited in the Devagiri region where Yadavas dynasty was ruling and ruler was Ramachandra and Alauddin conquered that too and received immense wealth out of which he hid some money without telling Jalaluddin 

And when he has returned from the expedition he thinks that I am worthy to be king, not my old uncle 

The result is that he killed his uncle Jalaluddin by deceit and becomes king himself


Alauddin Khilji

His reign lasted from 1296 to 1316 for 20 years and these 20 years was very important for this dynasty

As we have mentioned that Alauddin Khilji was nephew of Jalaluddin firuz Khilji along with this its also believe that Jalaluddin was father in law of alauddin because alauddin was married with his uncle's daughter because Alauddin's initial behaviour was very good and alauddin Khilji's real name was Ali Gurshasp

But when he came into power he started to do new experiments in different areas 


Principle of kingship

As we told you in the article of Slave Dynasty that all the sultan of earlier had to take the permission of the Caliphate and they had to rule according to Islamic tradition but he was the first king who said religion and politics will be separate

He never worked according to Islamic tradition he had separated tradition from politics and said i will do whatever will be good for my reign Religion has nothing to do with this 

He did not took the permission from Caliphate for to be a sultan and said that I'm the king of this empire i don't need to take permission from any caliphate I'm the king i know it

He established an autocratic rule during his reign under which he used to more care of his reign than his people and that was same like Balban's autocratic rule


Attempts to quell the rebellion

As we have mentioned that alauddin Khilji killed his uncle who brought up him since childhood with love and care also he was father in law of alauddin because he had killed his uncle so many of his close people and his family members were upset so they used to rebellion against alauddin Khilji which he did not used to like So there were 4 rebellions took place in his time

He suppressed the rebellion on the strength of his army and said that we will not allow further rebellion that is why he issued 4 ordinances

Land given in donations, gifts, pensions was taken back - He took the land in his control so that the land of the big capitalists went away from them and by which they could not do the rebellion again 

A good intelligence department was established - He knew that rebels could makes strategies against him so If his people roam in disguise from place to place then he could know about those who rebel so that he could end rebellion easily Due to this no further revolt could take place 

Banned on alcohol, cannabis and gambling -  He used to think that when rich people gathered so they use alcohol, cannabis and do gambling while doing that they makes strategies against the king so rich could not gather he banned these things completely 

Ban on wealthy people's marriage - When rich people used to get married they used to gather many people at their feast and used to do meetings due to which Alauddin Khilji felt that they could discuss to remove him from his throne so that is why he banned on feast and two rich people's marriage to secure his throne

Imposed tax on Hindus - he used to think that hindu can also do rebel against him so that is why he took all the land from them and make them poor so that they could not stands against their king 

So these were his ordinance against rebellion


Changes in revenue and tax system

At that time Mongol invasion of western border region of India was underway So to face Mongol or to make the empire strong he needed money for both 

Increase the tax - It is believed that before alauddin Khilji farmer and rich people had to pay One third out of their income but in Khilji time they had to pay 50% of their income 

He imposed two new taxes charai and ghari

Charai - Whose animals used to graze in the fields tax was collected from their owners 

Ghari - The places where people used to build houses were taxed for living in those houses

He measured all the land around Delhi and then imposed tax on it so that he could get decent amount of tax 

He created a new post to collect revenue named Mustakhraj he was an officer whose job was to collect revenue to collect this revenue he created a separate department named Diwan-i-mustakhraj 

The result of this revenue system was that a lot of wealth started accumulating with the king due to which he not only pushed the Mongol back but also established a strong India


Military reform


He became king at a time when the public and his own were against him so in such a situation he always felt that if he does not have a strong army then perhaps he could not be able to rule well that is why he made some military reforms

Permanent Army - Earlier kings used to use army in just war and after the war ended they used to give them salary or land and send them home but it was the first time when he established the permanent army 

Cash in salary - He stopped old tradition like earlier kings used to give soldiers Land or salary after war he started a new rule in which he used to give them cash every month due to which his soldiers were also happy and his army also became stronger and he was the first king in Indian history who started this

Soldiers Identification - As in modern world Photographs or finger prints of soldiers are taken so that they can be identified so at that time he also started the practice of detecting Soldiers for the first time in India

Horses identification - Horses that were included in the army the practice of marking those horses was also introduced so that the number of horses and breed can be better identified

The tradition that he started to identifying soldiers and horses was really good so now it can be said that he was successful to build a strong army because he had also divided the army in battalion It is said that on the strength of this army he had conquered many empires


Market system

The most important act he did about the market system is that there was a market for the soldiers where they could get everything at a reasonable price due to which soldiers did not used to demand to increase salary he established that market only for forces but gradually public also started coming in that market

Spacial thing about that market was that during the 20 years of Alauddin's reign there was no increase in prices in the market He Never allowed any price to increase so he made some rules he stopped Black money and sometimes he used to stop import and export  

He strongly implemented the price control system

He prevented dishonesty in measurement - Earlier if there was no increase in the price of something so people used to do dishonesty in measurement he took stern steps to prevent the dishonesty there were officials in the market who used to pay attention to measurement weights

It is said that if anything was weighed less by a person so in return the same body fat was weighed and cut from his body, Due to this harshness honesty was increased in people dishonesty was decreased


He had made different markets for different things 

Food market

Manufactured market

Daily market

Market for daily commodities

Market for animals and slaves

So these were 4 types of market Originally this system was implemented only in Delhi and its surrounding areas he failed to expand it throughout the empire Because his empire was spread over a large area 


Two Objective

Sikandar i sani - He tried to see himself as a winner so that is why he also assumed the title of Sikandar-i-sani which means second Alexander

Establishment of new religion - He also wanted to create a new religion instead of Islam but he was failed to create it 

These both objectives were failed


Empire expansion

As a winner he attacked and he undertook many expedition in the areas of Gujarat, Ranthambore, Bengal, chittod, Malwa and some more part of southern India and he won mostly expedition so that he was successful in establishing a great empire


Gujarat  

When he went to Gujrat for expedition so he got Malik Kafur from the king of Gujrat "Karna" and Malik kafur was bought in thousand dinars also he was a eunuch but he helped alauddin Khilji to win southern part of India 

Zafar Khan - He was the most loved general  of Alauddin Khilji and he was killed while fighting mongol

Padmavati - When Alauddin Khilji attacked Chittor at that time Queen Padmavati was the wife of King Ratan Singh It is said that Alauddin wanted to see or achieve her unfortunately there is not much information about this story in history

The information about padmavati comes from a book named Padmavat which was written in 1540 by Malik Muhammad Jayasi and he has described in this book that how Alauddin Khilji expedition in Chittor region and tried to get queen Padmavati 

But he failed because Rani Padmavati committed (Jauhar) suicide


Expedition in southern India 

The expedition of South India is the most important expedition Alauddin Khilji himself expedition for the first time in 1296 in South India But after becoming a king he had sent his general Malik Kafur in the expedition of South India in 1307 

In 1307 malik kafur attacked on Yadavas dynasty and defeated yadav king Ramchandra and got wealth from there apart from this he won by attacking in many more areas


Mongol  

At the time of alauddin Khilji Mongol invaders attacked on India for 6 time but they were failed and alauddin Khilji was successful every time to save his empire


Shihabuddin Omar

After alauddin Khilji Omar become the ruler for few time but not for long 


Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah

As we mentioned that omar could not rule for a long time so Mubarak shah came into power who ruled fron 1316 to 1320 unfortunately Mubarak shah was not able to handle this empire it is said that he himself declared as Sultan and Caliphate and started to rule 

It is also said about him that Mubarak was not good at mental level because sometimes he used to walk around in the palace naked and sometimes wearing women's clothes that is why he was unable to handle the empire 


Naseeruddin khusrau shah

After the murder of Mubarak Shah, khusrau Khan assumed the title of Naseeruddin khusrau shah in 1320 for few months he was a hindu but after later he became a Muslim 

Rich Muslim used to say that islam could be in dangerous because of Naseeruddin khusrau shah so that is why they removed him from the throne and established tughlaq dynasty


Khilji dynasty Architecture

Alai darwaza 

Jamait khana mosque

Siri fort

Place of thousand pillars


Khilji dynasty map

Khilji dynasty map


Khilji dynasty UPSC


Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji killed which last ruler of the Ghulam dynasty and laid the foundation of the Khilji dynasty in 1290 ?

Shamsuddin Kayumars


Where did Alauddin Khilji launch the first military expedition in southern India during the reign of Jalaluddin Feroz Khilji ?

Devagiri


Who was the first ruler of Delhi Sultanate who had a liberal attitude towards the Hindu people ?

Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji


Who was crushed under the elephant's feet during Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji?

Sidi Maula


At the time of which Sultan 2000 Mongols accepted Islam and settled in Mughalpur near Delhi which are called New Muslims?

Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji


Where did Alauddin Khilji get his coronation ?

In the Lal Mahal of Balban in Delhi


What was the new victory of Alauddin Khilji and after that victory what did he name the city ?

Victory of Chittor and renamed as Khizrabad


Which was the state in Southern India that neither accepted nor surrendered Alauddin Khilji ?

Pandya


Which Sultan of Delhi Sultanate assumed the title of Alexander II and got it inscribed on his coins ?

Alauddin Khilji


Amir Khusro witnessed the rule of how many rulers of the Sultanate period

8


Which officers were appointed by Allauddin Khilji for market control

diwan i riyasat, Shahna I Mandi, Badir i Mandi


Which Sultan of the Khilji empire accepted his position from the Caliphate

No one


Who propounded the rule of kingship of Alauddin Khilji

Amir Khusrow


Who led the expedition of Allauddin Khilji's Jalore expedition which was against Kanhaddev

Slave Gulle Bihisht


Which commander of Alauddin Khilji is also called Thousand Dinari

Malik Kafur


After becoming Sultan Allauddin Khilji's first military expedition was

Gujarat invasion 1299


Who was the commander of Allauddin Khilji against the Mongol invaders

Zafar Khan


Who established the department called diwan i wakuf

Jalaluddin Khilji


During whose time did the first Muslim invasion of South India took place

Jalaluddin Khilji


Which ruler said that he considers the cost of 1 hair of a Muslim's head more than 100 KG

Jalaluddin Khilji during the Ranthambore expedition


Khilji dynasty notes

• Market Regulation System was introduced by Alauddin Khilji

• The largest permanent army of Sultan dynasty which was directly paid by the state was formed by Alauddin Khilji

• Alauddin Khilji was the Sultan who called himself the second Sultan

• During the reign of Alauddin Khilji the Mongols attacked the most

• Khilji Sultans of Delhi were Turk

• Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji was the last ruler of the Khilji empire

• Alauddin Khilji also assumed the title of caliphate 

• Tarikh i firoz shahi was written by Ziauddin Barni

• Alai Darwaza and palace of a thousand pillars was built by Alauddin Khilji

• Alauddin Khilji started the practice of marking horses and identifying soldiers

• Sultan Alauddin Khilji's childhood name was Ali Gurshasp

• Julaluddin Firoz Khilji established the Khilji empire by ending the rule of slave dynasty

• Jalaluddin Khalji was the founder of Khilji empire

Post a Comment

0 Comments