Lodi dynasty | History | Rulers | UPSC

Lodi dynasty


History

The Lodi dynasty was the first Afghan dynasty in India its people used to live in the mountainous region of Sulaiman mountain which now situated in Pakistan This dynasty ruled the Sultanate of Delhi in its last phase

The hill dwellers which were spread in the Sulaiman mountain region between Multan and Peshawar in the east and Ghazni in the west they were actually unknown and they were living in state of poverty, They were dependent on animal husbandry and occasionally plundered the rich neighborhoods

Their fighting nature attracted the attention of Mahmud of Ghazni and made them a follower of him according to Al-Utbi, At the time the Afghan people were merely courageous and they were able to do rebels in mountainous, The Ilbari rulers of India used Afghan people to strengthen their outposts and occupy their hostile mountainous regions this situation once came under the rule of Muhammad bin Tughluq

An Afghan was made a governor and he also became a Sultan for a few days in daulatabad During the reign of Firoz Tughlaq, the influence of Afghans began to grow and an Afghan named Malik Veer was appointed as the governor of Bihar and Daulat Khan was probably the first Afghan who attained supreme power of Delhi though he did not call himself Sultan.

Many major provinces were under Afghan rule during the Sayyid dynasty At the time of Bahlol Lodi the Sultanship of Delhi was dominated by Afghans


Lodi dynasty Rulers


There were mainly 3 rulers 

Bahlul Khan Lodi (1451 to 1489)

Sikandar lodi (1489 to 1517)

Ibrahim lodi (1517 to 1526)


Sikandar Lodi was the most main ruler of this dynasty besides him the most powerful ruler of this dynasty was Ibrahim Lodi who ruled till the fast battle of Panipat

Bahlul Khan Lodi (1451 to 1489)

Bahlol Lodi used to belong to the Shahukhel tribe of the Afghans 

Bahlol Lodi accused the title of Bahlol Shah Ghazi and become a ruler of delhi

He carried a coin called (Bahloli) It is said that before Akbar the great came into power people used to use this coin

He abolished the Minister's post 

In 1484 AD, After defeating the ruler of Jaunpur Husain Shah Sharqi made his son Barbak shah who was the the new ruler of Jaunpur and later on he defeated Kirat Singh the ruler of Darbhanga in northern Bihar


Invaded Gwalior 

The ruler was Mansingh but could not win it according to Tithi-e-Daudi,

Bahlol Lodi respected the feeling of Afghan ethnic equality he used to call his Afghan teachers as the Masnad-e-Aali and used to sit on the carpet instead of the throne in front of his religious teachers people also used to distribute equal amount of income from loot

Bahlol Lodi was not religiously fanatical he included many Hindus in the administration such as Raikaran Singh, Ray pratap singh, Narsingh and Trilokchand


Sikandar lodi (1489 to 1517)

He was the younger son of Bahlol Lodi

Sikandar Lodi's real name was Nizam

Sikandar Lodi ended the tradition of ethnic equality and empire division prevalent among the Afghan  

Sikandar Lodi won Jaunpur from his elder brother Barabak and merged with the Sultanate

Till 1494, He had conquered the complete area of Bihar he also invaded the Rajputana kingdoms of eastern Rajasthan and conquered Dholpur, Narwar, Mandrella, Chanderi, Nagaur and Uttari to establish control over these Rajput states 

In 1504 AD Sikandar Lodi settled the city which known as Agra and built a fort of Badalgarh here 

1506 AD  He made Agra his capital 

Sikandar Lodi also attacked Gwalior and collected taxes but could not be merged in the Sultanate

He took steps for the development of agriculture and commerce trade in order to boost agricultural production he removed the tax called zakat from grain and gave protection to the traders through strict law and order in the state

This made Gaj-e-Sikandari (30 inches) the scale for measuring the land

Sikandar Lodi also took steps for the development of education he took madrassas under state patronage and also gave non-religious education in them

It is said that he tried to destroyed temples in Chamberi, Mandrella and Dholpur during his expedition and was promoting the truth by both Hindu and Muslim religions

Sikandar Lodi banned Muharram along with this he also banned Muslim women from going to Graveyard

Sikandar was a Persian so he was fluent in Farsi and could wrote in Persian under the surname Gulrukhi

On his order the Sanskrit treatise of Ayurveda was translated into Persian as Farhang-e-Sikandari 

During this period a treatise on music in Persian language was written as Lajjat-e-Sikandari and Kabir was its contemporary


Ibrahim Lodi (1517 to 1526)

He was the son of Sikandar Lodi at his time the equality of Afghans re-emerged  

He could not control the Afghans

He defeated Gwalior ruler Vikramjit and annexed Gwalior into the Sultanate and included Vikramjit in the administration and gave him the estate of Shamsabad

During the time of Ibrahim Lodi the a Afghan named Darya Khan Lohani of Bihar becomes independent and after this the Darya Khan Lohani becomes independent ruler of Bihar by the name of Muhammad Shah

Similarly the situation of Jalal Khan who was also a Afghan at Jaunpur and his condition was like Daulat Khan Lodi of Punjab means Independent, Ibrahim Khan's cousin Alam Khan also fought against the Sultan and took refuge in Gujarat.

In 1518 AD Ibrahim Lodi was defeated by Rana Sanga In Battle of Khatoli

According to Tujuk a Babri (Babur's biography) Daulat Khan Lodi met Alam khan and Sanga's messenger Babur to attack Agra

In April 1526 AD,  Ibrahim Lodi was killed in the first war of Panipat by the Mughal ruler zaheeruddin muhammad babur also the first Muslim ruler of India to die in war was Ibrahim Lodi.

In this war Babur used the Tulugama method with artillery so how did the lodi dynasty come to an end along with this the Delhi Sultanate came to an end and the great Mughal dynasty was established


Lodi dynasty Architecture


Bahlol Lodi's Tomb

This mausoleum built with red stones was built by Sikander Lodi

This tomb has three arches and door-pillars

It has five domes and the dome in the central part is the highest


Sikandar Lodi's tomb

This building was built by Ibrahim Lodi

Eight pillars are built around its dome and there are very high bastions on its four sides

In this tomb an attempt has been made to avoid the defects of octagonal tombs

Later it inspired in the development of Mughal style


Moth Mosque

It was built by the minister of Sikander Lodi

According to Sir John Marshall


Tomb Bade khan and Chote khan 

They were built by Alexander Lodi.

Apart from these he also built Moti Mosque

In this period Jama Masjid, Bada Dome, Dadi's Dome, Yellow Dome, Sheesh Dome, Taj Khan's Dome etc. Were famous.

Percy Brown referred to this era as the 'Age of Tomb'


Actually Khilji dynasty architecture has been copied in buildings built during the Sayyid and Lodi periods

In this period there were many provinces which had become independent from the suzerainty of the Sultans

There was a substantial development of architecture in these as well

Their art was also similar to the art of Delhi to a large extent

The local art traditions of pre-Turkish period were greatly influenced by Provincial Architectures

Different conditions prevailing in different provinces also influenced the art


Lodi dynasty Map

Lodi dynasty map


UPSC


Who discovered the instrument called sitar ?

Amir Khusrow


When did Bahlol Lodi die ?

12 July 1489


Who was Ibrahim Lodi's father ?

Sikandar Lodi


What work was Gaj e Sikandari used for ?

In land measuring work


Who invited Babur to attack against Abraham Lodi ?

Daulat Khan Lodi, the ruler of Punjab and Alam Khan, uncle of Ibrahim Lodi


Who introduced the 'Gaj e Sikandari' ?

Sikandar Lodi


Who was the founder of Agra city ?

Sikandar Lodi


With which title and when did Nizam Khan sit on the throne of Delhi ?

Sultan Sikandar Shah, in 1489 AD


Which battle laid the foundation of Mughal rule in Delhi ?

First Battle of Panipat


Who was the founder of Lodhi dynasty ?

Bahlol Lodhi


What is the date of birth Bahlol Lodi ?

1406


Who was the children of Bahlol Lodi ?

Sikandar Lodi


When did Sikandar Lodi die ?

21 November 1517


Who won the first battle of Panipat  in 1526 ?

Babur


When did Sikandar Lodi die ?

1517


Who was the last ruler of Lodi dynasty ?

Ibrahim Lodi


Where was Ibrahim Lodi born ?

Delhi

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