Slave Dynasty | History | Rulers | UPSC

 

Khilji dynasty


Slave Dynasty history

This dynasty came into existence in 1206 and ended in 1290 slave Dynasty is also known as Ghulm and Mamluk dynasty and the reason to call it as slave Dynasty is because the rulers of this empire once used to be slave weather the founder of this emperor Qutubuddin aibak or other ruler of the dynasty iltutmish and Balban, Qutubuddin aibak was the slave of Muhammad Ghori, Iltutmish was the slave of Qutubuddin aibak and Balban was the slave of Iltutmish


The slave dynasty is also called Mamluk this is an Arabic word which means (slave who born from independent parents)


Slave Dynasty Rulers


Qutubuddin Aibak

• Qutubuddin Aibak remain the ruler of Delhi sultanate from 1206 to 1210

• Who was Aibak? He was Muslim and belong to a turkish tribe in childhood he used to live Nishapur it's believed that a merchant bought him as slave from Nishapur then muhammad ghori bought him from the merchant

• Qutubuddin Aibak was a loyal slave of Muhammad ghori and it is said that Muhammad ghori defeated prithviraj chauhan with help of aibak this is the reason he was loyal slave of ghori and when ghori decided to leave India he gave all his conquered land to aibak and this how Qutubuddin aibak founded this dynasty

• He declared his capital to Lahore which is now located in Pakistan because all the Invaders used to come from Lahore side that is why he decided to control his empire 

• There was a tradition in Islamic empire that if any muslim wants to become a ruler so he must have to take permission from caliphate to become a sultan but aibak did not took the permission from caliphate without their permission he ruled for 4 years he maybe did not took the permission of caliphate because of lack of time period

• Qutubuddin aibak is also known as Lakh baksh because he used to donate generously and this question is asked in many exam that which indian empror is known as Lakh baksh 

• Aibak was a good visionary leader he built a mosque in Delhi which is known Quwwat ul islam along with this he built Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra in Ajmer city of Rajasthan and this question was asked in BPSC exam that what is Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra so it is a Mosque and he also laid the foundation of Qutub Minar which was completed by Iltutmish 

• In 1210 Qutubuddin aibak was a playing a game which was Chogan and now days it is similar to modern Polo game in which people ride on the horse and play so he was fallen from a horse while playing this game and was badly injured due to which he died and this question could be ask that which sultan was died while playing the polo 


Aram shah

• In 1210 Because of the sudden death of Qutubuddin aibak Aram shah took the throne of aibak and he became a empror because he was son of aikab 

• At that time when aibak took the throne of his father so some influence person of his own empire invited iltutmish to fight with their own empror Aram shah 

• Iltutmish was a slave of Qutubuddin aibak along with this he was also son in law of aibak then after few days Aram shah got the wind of this matter that Iltutmish is coming to conquer his empire then the war between Iltutmish and Aram Shah took place in which Iltutmish killed Aram Shah because of that aram shah's time period finished in just one year 


Iltutmish

• As we have mentioned that Iltutmish was son in law of aibak and he was also slave of aibak who ruled from 1210 to 1236 also some historian says he ruled from 1211 to 1236 

• He took the permission of caliphate before becoming the sultan and he built this dynasty strong and built a strong army because aibak was died in just 4 years that is why aibak had not enough time to build his empire stornge which was done by Iltutmish

• Iltutmish declared his capital to Delhi and also many historian says that Iltutmish was the real emperor of that dynasty

• Iltutmish used to give land to farmers and in return they used to pay him tax 

• Iltutmish made group of 40 people who used to be so strong on body and mentally level with help of these 40 people he killed all the supporters of Aibak and Aram shah and conquer the complete empire

• Iltutmish introduced Silver coin which used to know as Tanka and another coin was made of copper which used to known as Jital and Arabic language was written on both these coins

• The qutub Minar was completed by Iltutmish because Aibak was died when qutub Minar was being build

• The most famous king of Mongol empire Genghis Khan attacked india from Pakistan side when Iltutmish was ruling but Genghis khan's attacked was unsuccessful so this is how Iltutmish saved his empror from Mongol invaders and after some time period he died


Ruknuddin Firuz

After the death of his father Iltutmish, Ruknuddin sat on the throne and the interesting thing is that Iltutmish had declared his daughter Razia as a emperor before his death 

• Ruknuddin become a empror for short of time because some Influence people of that empire wanted to declare Ruknuddin as emoror but Ruknuddin could not rule this empire because he was not able to handle this 


Razia Sultan

• Razia Sultan's reign lasted from 1236 to 1240

• The most common question asks in exams is that Who was the first female ruler or India or who was the first female muslim ruler of India so the answer is Razia Sultan she was the first female ruler of India 

• Razia Sultan used to rule like her father Iltutmish she used to wear dresses like a male ruler due to this behaviour many people of her empire did not used to like because they had to respect her and they had to bow their head front of her

• Due to her behaviour influence people of her empire was divided into two parts Supporters and Opponent then the opponent people of razia invited the ruler of Bhatinda, Altunia and Opponents said to Altunia that you should attack on razia's empire because she is not worthy of it 

• Then the ruler of Bhatinda, Altunia killed Yaqut who was really closed to her and he took Razia captive Altunia was one of the influence person of her time some historians also says that there was love in between Razia and Yakut 

• Razia pursued diplomacy and Riza married to Altunia who had brought her captive and started to living in Bhatinda


Bahram shah

Razia was out of delhi with Altunia and the thorne of delhi was empty because this golden opportunity her brother Bahram shah sat on throne of Delhi 

• When Altunia and Razia got the wind of this matter they decided to return to delhi but before they come delhi both Razia and Altunia were killed and some historians believe that they were killed by Bahran shah after their death he completely took over their throne in 1240 to 1242


Alauddin masud shah

he ruled from 1242 to 1246 


Nasiruddin mahmud 

He ruled from 1246 to 1268 

There was nothing changed in empire when Alauddin and Nasiruddin were ruling the empire was same as Razia Sultan leave and if you are preparing for exam so questions does not ask from these two kings 


Ghiyasuddin Balban

The reign of Balban was from 1266 to 1287 Balban was one of the most influence people among of 40 influence people's group which was made by Iltutmish as we also mentioned about it earlier and he was very intelligent 

• Balban married his daughter with Nasruddin Mahmoud then Nasruddin become his son in law Due to this his influence also started increasing after doing that he killed his son in law nasaruddin Shah and become the Sultan of Delhi 

• Balban's full name was Ghiyasuddin balban he married his daughter with Nasruddin Mahmoud in 1249 Nasiruddin was really happy after the marriage that is why he nominated his father in law with the title of Ulugh khan 

• Balban started establishing rule on the basis of the sword and he has declared himself to be a natural king from God he told the people that he has been made king because God has chosen him as the king

• He used to call himself Zille ilahi which means Shadow of God

• He believed that the king's first job is to be autocratic and in this way he established very difficult governance he killed many people

• One of the reason to killing many people was that he killed his son in law and due to which many people were against him that is why he killed most of them 

• He created a army division which used to known as Diwan-i-Arz 

• Balban told the people that he comes from a very rich and good background so people should respect him, 

• To enforce his honor he imposed a variety of orders on his own people for example sijda and paibos

SIJDA - People have to kneel down and touch the ground from their head in front of Sultan just to greet him even its a sin in Islam to bow down in front of anyone expect God

PAIBOS - People must have to kiss his feet just show that they respect him 

• Balban introduced a Persian festival Navroz and this is asks in many exams that Who started Navroz festival in India?

• Balban also saved India from Mongol 

• Amir Khusrow and Amir hasan used to live in Balban's mansion 

• Balban was died in 1287


Muizuddin Qaiqabad 

• He was not able to handle this empire that is why he he ruled from 1287 to 1290

Shamsuddin Kayumars

• He was the son of kayumars and grandson of Balban 

• But Kayumars could not rule for a long time because he was killed in the same year when he started to rule in 1290 and after his death the Khilji Dynasty was establish 


Slave Dynasty Architecture

Qutub Minar

Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra

Mosques


Slave Dynasty map



Slave Dynasty UPSC / Slave Dynasty Gk question answer


Which Sultan in his inscription on the walls of the mosque of Garhmukteshwar called himself the assistant of the Caliphate ?

Balban 


Who started Nowruz the famous Parsi festival in India ?

Balban


What grand title did Balban hold after consolidating his power ?

Zil-i-ilahi


Which king of Delhi was autocratic ?

Balban


What is the full name of balban 

Ghiyas ud din Balban


Who was responsible for removing Razia Sultan from power ?

Turkish people


Whom did Iltutmish appoint as his first governor in Bihar ?

Malik Jani


What is the original name of Genghis Khan ?

Temujin


When did the Mongols invade India under Genghis Khan ?

In the reign of Iltutmish


In whose reign the Mongols were first seen on the banks of the Indus ?

Iltutmish


Who was the first woman ruler of India ?

Razia Sultan


Who is known as slave of slave ?

Iltutmish 


Which Sultan first transferred his capital to Delhi ?

Iltutmish


How Qutubuddin aibak was died ?

While playing Polo


Where was the capital of Qutubuddin Aibak ?

Lahore


What is Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra ?

A mosque 


Which sultan of delhi used to known as lakh baksh ?

Qutubuddin aibak


Who was the founder of slave Dynasty ?

Qutubuddin aibak


Which slave of Muhammad Ghori had conquered Bengal and Bihar ?

Bakhtiyar khilji


To whom did Muhammad Ghori give his first territory in India ?

Qutubuddin aibak


The coins of which Muslim ruler had the shape of Goddess Lakshmi ?

Muhammad Ghori


Which king was defeated by Mohammad Ghori in the battle of Chandavar ?

Jayachandra


Who was the first Muslim to study Puranas ?

Al biruni


Who was the author of Shahnama ?

Firdausi


Slave dynasty rulers list


Qutbuddin Aibak - 1206 to 1210 

Aram Shah - 1210 to 1211 

Iltutmish - 1211 to 1236 

Ruknuddin Feroze - 1236  

Razia Sultan - 1236 to 1240 

Muizuddin Bahram - 1240 to 1242 

Alauddin Masud - 1242 to 1246 

Nasiruddin Mahmud - 1246 to 1266 

Ghiyasuddin Balban 1266 to 1286

Muizuddin Muhammad Qaiqabad - 1286 to 1290

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