Tughlaq dynasty | History | Rulers | UPSC


Tughlaq dynasty

We are reading about Delhi sultanate in a sequence including all of its dynasties in last article of Knowledgeneed we have mentioned that how Tughlaq dynasty was established, The reign of this dynasty is known from 1320 to 1398 but some historians also believe that its actual reign was (1398 to 1414) then Sayyid dynasty came into power

Tughlaq dynasty rulers 

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq

Ghiyasud-din Tughlaq established this dynasty after Khilji dynasty in 1320 AD, At that time when he established this dynasty his real name was ghazi malik tughlaq 

Ghazi Malik tried to reform his dynasty after establishing it because the descendants of Alauddin Khilji has ruined the Khilji dynasty for which he sent Muhammad bin Tughluq on an expedition to Southern India and tried to bring it back under his control strongly 

Apart from this the practices which was started by Alauddin Khilji like Marking horses and identifying soldiers were also followed by Ghiyasuddin and he tried to build a more strong army and is believed that mostly Mongol invaders attacked on india during the reign of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq

Started to giving the land to people - As alauddin took back the land from people and converted it to Khalsa land, but when Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq came into power he started to give this land to rich people and to landlord in a form of salary or pension 

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq struggled 29 times with Mongol invaders but in his short time of period from 1320 to 1325 He was always successful to keep Mongol invaders away from his empire when he defeated the Mongol invaders he assumed the title of Malik ul Ghazi also known as Ghazi Malik

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq was the first Sultan of Sultanate who built canals for irrigation, Ghiyasuddin was a turk Muslim and Tughlaq empire also was the last empire of turkish people in india two other turkish dynasty were Slave Dynasty and Khilji dynasty

In 1324 - 25, Ghiyasuddin went on Bengal expedition and when he returned after conquering Bihar and Bengal so Muhammad bin Tughlaq built a large luxurious palace for his grand welcome and it is said that During the victory ceremony of Bihar and Bengal a wood from the roof palace fall on Ghiyasuddin's head and he died some historians believe that was an incident and some believe that was a murder however he was died

Muhammad bin Tughlaq

In 1325 he came into power after the death of his father and keep remained the king till 1352 his old name was Fakhr Malik Jauna Khan, In history he is also famous for his fool and wise thinking

Because he was the most educated ruler in the history of the entire Sultanate he used to thought about the expedition of the future because of which he tried 5 campaigns of future in which he was failed and for this reason he is also known as foolish ruler 

Tax increase

He increased the tax on the fertile land around the rivers to fifty percent, He felt that by doing this people would pay him more tax But his luck was so bad that there was a famine in the areas where he increased taxes along with this the disease had spread due to which the farmer did not farmed but still Muhammad bin Tughlaq wanted to collect tax from those farmers forcibly so this was his first experiment which was unsuccessful

Capital change

Delhi was the capital but he decided to transform his capital from Delhi to Devagiri and there is confusion between two historians Ziauddin Barani and ibn battuta that why he wanted to go Devagiri

Ziauddin Barani - He said that he wanted to go to Devagiri because it was the center of his empire and it was easy to rule for him along with this the threat of Mongol invaders could also be averted

Ibn battuta - he said that when muhammad bin tughlaq lived in Delhi so people used to send him letters writing abuses because of that he was so upset that he decided to leave Delhi and go to Devagiri

But the foolish thing he done that he did not decided to go alone or with his close people but he said that people of Delhi should go to Devagiri with him so the result came out that he went to devagiri with all his people unfortunately he could not live there so he returned to Delhi again in 1327, this is how he was failed again 

Nominal currency 

He was the first king in Indian history who took such a step after seeing the dwindling reserves of gold and silver he kept gold and silver with him and made copper and bronze's coins after this he took all the gold and silver coins from the public and gave them brass and copper coins in return but its negative result came out that people started making fake coins of brass and copper and then a time came when duplicate coins had increased a lot due to which their value had fallen along with this the inflation in market had increased a lot

This is how his experiment was also failed because there was a lot of coins with everyone so after few days he decided to stop this experiment then he told his people that give me back all the copper and brass coins and when people returned the coins to him it is said that he got back more than the coins he had made because there was mostly fake coins 

khurasan expedition

Khurasan is in central Asia there was unrest in central Asia and the Mongols was not there there he thought that every time people attacked us from Central Asia so this time we would attack Central Asia, As a result he prepared an army of 370 thousands people and gave them a year salary in advance by saying that we have to go for expedition so be ready but between this one year everything went well in central Asia and another empire was re-established because of which he had cancelled his expedition plan 

He had given already salary to a large army and expedition was also failed because of which his treasury was also reduced

Qarachil expedition

Qarachil which is located in kumaon hills of Uttarakhand he started to expedition there, There were 2 main objectives stated to prevent the rebels which were being revolted from there people or to enter China through it

Initially, Mohammed bin Tughlaq's army had won but when the people from secretly started to attacked from among the hills then Muhammad bin Tughlaq's army had to struggle and his army was defeated

This is how his this expedition was also failed 

Diwan e kohi

Muhammad bin Tughlaq had made an arrangement for agriculture which is known as Diwan e kohi and Diwan e Amir it was a department whose aim was farming 

He had chosen an area where he had given oxen to the farmers had arranged for irrigation and had appointed officers 

and said that in this area farming will be done by the government under its control it was completely same like today's modern world, It was started by Muhammad bin Tughlaq but it was unsuccessful again and there are two reason behind it

Reason 1 - The officers which were appointed by him they selected such a field which was not worthy to be farming

Reason 2 - After taking oxen when farmers realize that this land is not worthy to be farming so they stopped farming and the officers also ran away with money

Unfortunately the result came out that a well plan idea was again unsuccessful

Ibn battuta

A Moroccan came to india whose name was ibn battuta he was an explorer and author when he entered in india at that time Muhammad bin Tughlaq was ruling so battuta went to Tughlaq's palace after a conversation Tughlaq was highly impressed to battuta because which he Tughlaq appointed him as Judge of Delhi everything that battuta observed in Delhi has written in his book which is Rihla where he wrote about his travel experience

In 1342 ad Muhammad bin Tughlaq sent battuta to china as an Ambassador

Because of transformation of his capital there was chaos in southern India to reform it two new empire came into power Vijaynagar and Bahmani

Vijaynagar - it was a important empire established by hindus 

Bahmani - It was another important empire established by Muslim 

In 1351 Muhammad bin Tughlaq was died at a place called thatta near the Indus valley while ending an rebellion so this is how he leave this Empire and the world

After his death an author named Badayuni wrote in his book that People got freedom from Tughlaq and Tughlaq got rid from people because neither people were happy with him nor he was happy with them

Firoz Shah Tughlaq

After the death of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, Firoz Shah Tughlaq came into power in 1351 who ruled till 1388 firoz was cousin brother of Muhammad bin Tughlaq its said about him that firoz did not wanted to become ruler but Islamic scholar appreciated him to become a ruler 

Islamic empire

There was an impact of Islamic Religious teacher on his empire he used to call hindu as Jimmi  and imposed Jizyah tex on  Hindu Brahmin in medieval history of India he is also known as Welfare Sultan of Delhi sultanate and some people also call his as Akber of Delhi sultanate 

So let us know why he is known as welfare Sultan of Delhi of Akbar the great of Delhi

Welfare work

After becoming the king he stopped 24 types of Tex and Said to his people that you have to pay only 4 types of tax

khams tax - whenever army used to go in wars and army used to win money from there then 20 percent of that would have to be given to the king so this tax used to known as khams

Kharaj tax - This tax was imposed on farmers in which farmers had to pay about 30 percent tax of their income

Jizyah tax - That was an another type of tax which was imposed on non Muslim and it was a religious tax  

Zakat tax - This tax was imposed on Muslim in which Muslim had to pay 2.5 percent of their income that was also a Religious tax

These were the 4 types of tax and all other tax was banned by him 


Diwan i bandagan - He used to love and care of slaves so for them he built a separate department which is known as Diwan-i-Bandagan and the largest number of slaves was at the time of firoz which was (180-000) 

Diwan i Khairat - He imposed this tax on his people though this he used to help of poors widows and orphans Diwan-i-Khairat means Department of Charity

Dar ul safa - it was a charity hospital where poor people used to get free treatment

Apart from this he built many more things which was really beneficial for people of that time hence he is known as the welfare ruler

Public works department

He established the Public Works Department through which he built many more things about which Firishta or Ferishta wrote in his book in complete details whatever was built by him 


He built more than 300 cities some famous cities are Hisar, Fatehabad, Jaunpur, Firozpur, Firozabad


He built many small and some big canals to help farmers apart from this he built many ponds and wells to promote irrigation 

Hak e sarb - It was tax for irrigation if farmers use ponds, wells or canals which was made by him which was ⅒


He had built more than 1200 fruit orchards in which thousands of plants were planted by him he also tried to increase the quality of fruits to make them more tasty and nutritious

Translation Department

He had built a department for translation to translate Indian and Islamic scriptures in Persian and other languages

Ghazi Malik Shahna

He was the architect of firoz all the construction of Orchards, ponds, wells, was happened by him


The coins which was introduced by firoz Shah Tughlaq there was caliphate's name carried on them and used to do that to impress his religious teacher 

The pillars of Ashoka

He had uprooted the Ashoka pillar from Meerut and Topra which is now situated in Delhi 

fatwah-i firoz-shahi

Firoz shah Tughlaq was educated so he wrote his autobiography which is known as fatwah i firoz shahi

Ziauddin Barani 

He used to live in firoz Shah Tughlaq's palace and he was historian there are two famous book which are written by him Tarikh-i-Firoz Shahi and fatwa i jahandari

Firoz Shah was died in 1388 after him many Rulers ruled but they are not really important but the last ruler is little important 

Nasir ud din mahmud tughlaq

He was the last ruler Who ruled from 1392 to 1412 

Taimur lang 

Taimur lang attacked india in 1398 and taimur was mongol he looted delhi when Nasiruddin Tughlaq was ruling and at that his empire was became so weak his reign was reduced from palam to delhi, however he tried to ruled 1412 

After looted delhi taimur lang went back to his country but he left his close person in Delhi named khizr khan who established Sayyid dynasty in 1414 

Tughlaq dynasty map

Tughlaq dynasty Architecture

• Tughlaqabad fort

• Firoz Shah kotla

• Adilabad Fort 

• Khirki Mosque

• Hauz khas

• Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq's Tomb

• Tomb of Telangani 

Tughlaq dynasty UPSC

What was the original name of Gayasuddin Tughlaq ?

Ghazi malik or Ghazi bag Tughlaq

Which ruler first noticed the increase in agricultural production ?

Gayasuddin Tughlaq

Which city was built by Gayasuddin Tughlaq ?


Gyaasuddin Tughlaq did not have good relations with which saint of Chishti sect ?

Nizamuddin auliya

Who long did Muhammad bin Tughlaq ruled ?

1325 to 1352 AD

What was the original name of Muhammad bin Tughlaq ?

Fakhr Malik Jauna Khan

Which Sultan was among the Sultans of Delhi who started giving posts on the basis of merit ?

Muhammad bin Tughlaq

Who laid the foundation of the independent city of Vijayanagar under the rule of Muhammad bin Tughlaq ?

Harihar and Bukka

Where did Muhammad bin Tughlaq transfer his capital to ?


Who had spent 17 years in Muhammad bin Tughlaq's court ?

Ziauddin barani

Which department was Muhammad bin Tughlaq established for the development of agriculture ?

Diwan e Kohi 

Whom did Muhammad bin Tughlaq send as his ambassador to the court of Togan Timur

 the ruler of China ?

Ibn battuta

Who considered Sahil mentally disturbed ?

British historian Mountstuart Elphinstone

Who said that after the death of Sultan he got freedom from his people and his people got freedom from their Sultan ?

Abdul Qadir Badayuni

Which Chinese ruler had sent his ambassador in Muhammad bin Tughlaq's court in 1341 ?

Togan Timur

What was the time of Firoz Shah Tughlaq's reign ?

1351 to 1388

Where Muhammad bin Tughlaq was died ?


Who became the ruler of Delhi after Muhammad bin Tughlaq ?

Firoz Shah Tughlaq

Who was the first Muslim ruler born from a hindu mother ?

Firoz Shah Tughlaq

Which department was established by firoz shah to help poor


What are the four types of Tex which was imposed by firoz Shah Tughlaq

Kharaj tax

Khams tax 

Jazya tax

Zakat tax

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